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Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

الهزات الأرضية في منطقة حرض شرق المملكة

الحقيقة أن الشركة المنتجة للبترول في هذه المنطقة تقوم بحقن مياه بحر معالجة في مكمن البترول ليحل محل البترول المستخرج. كميات المياه التي يتم ضخها تعادل 110% من كميات البترول و لذلك لا أعتقد أن إنتاج البترول السبب الرئيسي لهذه الهزات. أرجو من الأعضاء الكرام التعليق على هذا الموضوع.

د سامي النعيم

August 26, 2010 at 9:54 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Ali Al Mahdi
Member
Posts: 1

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

انا اوافقك الرآي .بحيث الشركة المنتجة للبترول تقوم  بحقن مياه البحار في المسامات الفارغة في المكمن النفطي 

لاكن السؤال  الذي يدور اذا لم يكن البترول هو السبب اذا ماهو السبب الحقيقي؟


August 27, 2010 at 4:30 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

Ali Al Mahdi at August 27, 2010 at 4:30 AM

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

انا اوافقك الرآي .بحيث الشركة المنتجة للبترول تقوم  بحقن مياه البحار في المسامات الفارغة في المكمن النفطي 

لاكن السؤال  الذي يدور اذا لم يكن البترول هو السبب اذا ماهو السبب الحقيقي؟


للإجابة على هذا السؤال يجب عمل تجارب و إختبارات جيولوجية و جيوفيزيائية دقيقة و متكاملة

قد تكون التشققات الجيولوجية الطبيعية السبب وراء هذه الهزات خاصة إذا كان ما نُشر في الصحف عن عمق الزلزال 7 كم تحت الأرض حيث المعروف أن مكامن البترول في هذه المنطقة لا تتعدى 2 كم و مكامن الغاز لا تتعدى 4 كم. الحقيقة أن منطقة شبه الجزيرة تُعد من أقل مناطق العالم من حيث الدراسات الجيوفيزيائية و العتب على مراكز الأبحاث و الجامعات و المنظمات العلمية ذات العلاقة. أرجو من فريق العمل اللذي سوف يقوم بدراسة هذه الظاهرة عدم إفتراض (مقدماً) أن البترول هو السبب و ترك جميع الإحتمالات مفتوحة للبحث.

August 27, 2010 at 5:55 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Al-Awad, Musaed N. J.
Moderator
Posts: 1

إذا كانت نقطة نشوء الهزات تقع ضمن أو في نطاق قريب من عمق المكامن البترولية في المنطقة فأعتقد عتقد أن السبب قد يكون راجعا لوجود صدوع و فوالق وتشققات طبيعية في طبقات المنطقة وبالتالي فإن الماء المحقون لتعويض البترول المنتج و الحفاظ على طاقة المكمن يمكن أن يتسبب بتسهيل انزلاق سطوح التماس في تلك الصدوح بشكل محدود وحدوث حركات أرضية في المنطقة.  أما إذا كان عمق نقطة نشوء الهزات عميق جدا فأعتقد بأنه علاقته بإنتاج البترول مشكوك فيها و تحتاج إلى دراسة متأنية قبل إصدار  أي حكم قطعي الدلالة و الله أعلم.

--

Professor Musaed N. J. Al-Awad, Chairman

Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department,

College of Engineering,

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,

malawwad@ksu.edu.sa

http/faculty.ksu.edu.sa/Malawad/default.aspx

 

November 7, 2010 at 1:52 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

I totally agree with you Dr. Musad. What I heard is that the depth is way below the reservoir depth. Anyway, I believe that several tests and studies must be conducted before reaching or announcing the cause of these earthquakes. What happened, premature conclusions were announced by several government organizations including KACST to blame oil production and water injection without mentioning what studies and tests conducted to reach such conclusions?

November 7, 2010 at 9:58 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

I just want to mention here that according to Dr. Tareq Al-Khalifa, the information I mentioned here that KACST blamed oil production for these events is not totally correct.

December 18, 2010 at 1:51 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

I wish from KACST (Dr. AbdulRahman Quraishi) or anybody else to update us on this event specially after what we read in the news two weeks ago of another minor earthquake that happed in the same area (Haradh)?.

December 25, 2010 at 1:18 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Abdulmohsin Y. Al Dulaijan
Member
Posts: 4

I did some quick web search and came across many articles discussing this issue. The link below addressed briefly the men-induced seismicity.

 

http://www.obsis.unb.br/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=61%3Asismicidade-induzida-pelo-homem&catid=35%3Asismologia&Itemid=73&lang=en

 

The article indicated tht there are some published evidences (need to be verified) that fluid injection and extraction can lead to small earthquakes (below 5 on the Richter scale). It would be great if SGS or KACST document and study the correlations between the seismic  events and the hydrocarbon productions through the recent history.

--
December 25, 2010 at 12:43 PM Flag Quote & Reply

Abdulmohsin Y. Al Dulaijan
Member
Posts: 4

In other words, what I suggest is to do two stages study (if that has not been done yet):

 

- Examine the seismic data (earthquakes activities) and production data around Haradh to establish if there is a correlcation between them. If a substancial correlation is established then

- Try to come up with a mechanism or model to explain the correlation that may help in predicting the long term impact of the production and take the necessary precautions if needed. This also may predict what will happen with newly discovered fields.

--
December 25, 2010 at 3:59 PM Flag Quote & Reply

SALEH ALMULHIM, P.E.68402
Moderator
Posts: 2

Salam Alaykam,

My experience is highly shallow on geology to make any beneficial comments. However I am surprise to read the KACST presumed that oil production is the cause without backing it up with any solid data. KACST is a reputable research entity in our Kingdom and shall not just make such a rebuttable presumption. End of comment on the subject.

 

Now, I would like to put a more series question (or maybe an interesting one) on the table:

Let us assume that an entity has studies the case and determined that the cause is not oil production. Will these earthquakes impact the geological structure of the current oil and gas reservoirs? Will it be a positive impact where the non recoverable oil and gas will be recoverable? Or will it be a negative impact which will hinders the current production? Is there any entity who is studying this case to address my question.

 

Best regards,

Saleh

--

Saleh A. Al Mulhim, P.E. 68402

Energy Constultant &

Finincial MarkettsTechnical Analyst (CMT-I)

 

December 26, 2010 at 2:56 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

Thanks to both Dr. Abdulmohsen and Engineer Saleh for their input. There is an on-going team with reps from all concerned parties. I am not sure if they have reached a conclusion on this or not. If they did, it was not announced. My personal opinion is that it would be very difficult to come up with the correlation that Dr. Abdulmohsen is talking about without long term monitoring and intensive testing through what we call pulse testing (deliberate over injection cyclic operation).

 

So far, I did not see big concern from the media possibly because there is no injury or damaged properties. It looks like that the area does not have a lot of population and the earthquakes were very minor.

Saleh question is also difficult to answer. If there is an impact on recovery, I think it would be more negative than positive by possibly enlarging/connecting the already existing fractures that could connect the aquifer to the oil wells which can negatively impact recovery. I am not aware of any reservoir simulator that can simulate this process and quantify the impact.

December 27, 2010 at 7:08 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Abdulmohsin Y. Al Dulaijan
Member
Posts: 4

What I meant is to look at the existing data of the measured earthquakes the happened in the past and compare them to the production/injection data in the Haradh area for the same period in order to see if there is any (apparent) correlation. I hope that the team charged with addressing the issue has at least considered this.

December 27, 2010 at 7:48 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

I think there was no historical earthquake recorded data pre the injection and the startup of Harad production. Plus , I do not think that the correlation is straight forward at which you will see some activities with the injection since the events depth is deeper than the injection depth. If this is related, then it would take time for the temperature wave to propagate with distance. This needs to be simulated using a thermal reservoir simulator that would allow the rock expansion due to temperature variation which does not exist as far as I know. That’s why I think it is not straight forward job. I believe that the team has access to the data you mentioned since they have members from Aramco and the MINPET. But again, it would be very challenging to prove it. I suggest that this could be a topic for new research in this area. I hope that KACST or KAUST or KFUPM to address this challenge through new research.

December 27, 2010 at 11:25 PM Flag Quote & Reply

Salamah S. Al-Anizi
Moderator
Posts: 23

I would like to switch gears and talk about objectives of knowing wither Haradh or any other location in Saudi Arabia has serious seismic activities on the people or facilities and methods and ways of prevention.  No one object that seismic activities or earthquakes are very dangerous to people and facilities but we have little in preparation or prevention of consequences.  When designing plants within most areas of Saudi Arabia the seismic area is considered zero, meaning no possible tendency of earthquakes and that is including areas close to earthquake activities such as Alees area close to Yanbu.  During that incident, engineers were asked to come up with prevention methods to oil processing facilities in
case of earthquakes of different strength levels. In summary, nothing is impossible but we need to be ready for it in all life aspects

--

Salamah S. Al-Anizi

Engineering Consultant

December 31, 2010 at 3:22 PM Flag Quote & Reply

Abdulmohsin Y. Al Dulaijan
Member
Posts: 4

Gents;

 

I agree with most  what have been said but in my opinion in order to fully understand what happened, extraploate the knowldge to other areas of Saudi Arabia and come up with preventive measures we need  to investigate all availble earthquakes and hydrocarbon production data, come up with explainations/theories to explain the data and then test our theories with controlled experiments if possible. Any premature conclusion would be counterproductive and may negatively impact  the integrity and reputaion of all involved parties. I wish the team investigating this issue share their progress and findings with interested professional people like us for comments prior to issue their final report.

January 1, 2011 at 12:32 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Sami Alnuaim
Site Owner
Posts: 61

I agree with Salamah, but if this can be scientifically proved that it is due oil production activities or rock expansion due to cooling effect caused by the water injection (which I doubt), then we can heat the injected water, and/or reduce the production intake and hence the water injection, and/or we can mobilize the people living above the affected areas somewhere else.

 

What I know, the cooling effect of the injected water dissipates after few hundred meters away from the infection location where the temp equals the original reservoir temp. Hence, I do not believe that the cooling effect is the reason nor the production/injection since we are injecting equivalent reservoir volume. Would drilling activities cause this? I do not know. Is it natural occurring activities? Possible.

 

Now for the high risk areas knowing of natural seismicity activities such as areas near Yanbu, I think it is a must to consider this risk in the plant design.

January 1, 2011 at 5:33 AM Flag Quote & Reply

Dr. Elsayed
Member
Posts: 1

Dr. Sami Alnuaim at January 1, 2011 at 5:33 AM

I agree with Salamah, but if this can be scientifically proved that it is due oil production activities or rock expansion due to cooling effect caused by the water injection (which I doubt), then we can heat the injected water, and/or reduce the production intake and hence the water injection, and/or we can mobilize the people living above the affected areas somewhere else.

 

What I know, the cooling effect of the injected water dissipates after few hundred meters away from the infection location where the temp equals the original reservoir temp. Hence, I do not believe that the cooling effect is the reason nor the production/injection since we are injecting equivalent reservoir volume. Would drilling activities cause this? I do not know. Is it natural occurring activities? Possible.

 

Now for the high risk areas knowing of natural seismicity activities such as areas near Yanbu, I think it is a must to consider this risk in the plant design.

الزلازل المستحثة وحقن الابار

  حقن الابار بالمياه

يصاحب إنتاج النفط وخزانات الطاقة الجيوحرارية وحقن الابار بالسوائل لزيادة كفائة الانتاج فى أبار النفط  نشاط زلزالى مستحث  ومن سمات البؤر الزلزالية المستحثة ان العمق البؤرى ضحل وغالبا مايتراوح بين 0.5 كم الى 3.5 كم وترتبط بتواجد شبكة الفواصل والصدوع القديمة وتصاحب تحرك مادة الحقن سواء كانت سائلة أو غازية

درس

       (Bou-Rabee Firyal and Nur Amos, 2002) 

زلزال ضرب منطقة بها أكبر تجمع للابار المنتجة للنفط فى الكويت بقوة 4.7 درجة فى الثانى من يونيو 1993 م وهى من المناطق غير نشطة زلزاليا وحدث هذا الزلزال بعد 25 شهرا من تدفق وإشعال 539 بئرا من قبل الجيش العراقى وبسبب التدفق الهائل من الزيت الذى استمر 8 أشهر والنقص السريع فى الضغط المسامى مما أدى الى تشوة فى الصخور تحت السطحية للمنطقة وتسبب فى حدوث زلزال مستحث كما ذكر المؤلفان ولكن فى بحثهما تناولا أن عمق الزلزال 20 كم فإن كان عمقه هكذا فلا  يكون هذا الزلزال مستحث ولكنهما قالا ان العمق غير محسوب بدقة

نظرية إنبعاث الزلازل المستحثة نتيجة الحقن

نتيجة إنتاج المواد الهيدروكربونية أو حقن الابار سواء كان بالماء أو الغاز يتغير ضغط الفراغات ونتيجة لذلك يقل قيمة الاجهاد المسؤل عن كسر صخور الخزان مما يؤدى الى إعادة نشاط الصدوع والفواصل الموجودة وبالتالى تنشأ حركة الصدوع وإنبعاث طاقة سيزمية والتى يمكن تسجيلها من خلال أجهزة رصد موضوعة داخل أبار بالقرب من الخزان وبهذه الطريقة يمكن تحديد أماكن الزلازل المستحثة نتيجة الحركات الناشئة من عمليات الحقن

ومن خلال عمليات رصد الزلازل غالبا ما نجد أن تقدير العمق يحدث به خطأ فأذا كان موقع الزلزال المتعلق بالحديث عمقه صحيح فلا يكون زلزال مستحث

د. السيد محمد سالم

January 6, 2011 at 2:53 PM Flag Quote & Reply

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